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The Future of Work. New Report from Institute for Gender and the Economy Looks at Remote Work and the Pursuit of Equality.

November 8, 2022

Toronto – The shift to remote working in March 2020 caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has raised many questions on the future of work. A new report looks at who has benefited from remote and hybrid work models and what organizations and governments can do to ensure those currently disadvantaged by the current models can also benefit.

The report, from the Institute for Gender and the Economy (GATE) at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management, says that remote work and hybrid models have improved many workers’ lives, but they have also been associated with career penalties, work-family conflict, higher stress, and other mental health challenges—particularly for those who already experience inequity. Many of these disadvantages come about not because of anything inherent about remote work but because of bias, stereotypes, and social norms surrounding paid and unpaid work.

The report found that the ability to work remotely disproportionately belongs to higher-income, white-collar workers who are predominantly white and male. Those with poor access to housing and high-speed internet or who experience unsafe situations such as domestic violence cannot readily work remotely. Primary caregivers, who tend to be women, may particularly experience an erosion of boundaries between work and care responsibilities while working from home, leading to an unsustainable amount of paid and unpaid work. For others the opportunity to work remotely increases economic opportunity by allowing caregivers to remain in the workforce and allowing workers to move to less expensive regions. However, women and racialized people tend to experience disproportionate stigma and bias for using them, resulting in significant career penalties such as wage reductions and fewer promotions.

Such issues with working remotely suggests the need for remote-work policies that support both equity and wellbeing and that aim to mitigate bias and other structural disadvantages for remote workers.  Public policies such as affordable childcare, adequate paid family leave, and a range of options for flexible work can facilitate more egalitarian relationships and households. Both workers and organizations benefit from policies that remove stigma of remote work because it increases worker motivation and job performance. Flexible work stigma can also be reduced by ensuring information is accessible online, and creating team-building opportunities for hybrid- and remote-working employees. Organizational initiatives can decrease work-family conflict, such as by ensuring reliable and consistent communication to all employees, establishing that workers know they do not have to work longer hours at home, and eliminating employee monitoring.

The report was written by; Kim de Laat, an assistant Professor of organization and human behaviour at the University of Waterloo’s Stratford School of Interaction Design and Business and a former post doctoral fellow at GATE; Carmina Ravanera, a senior research associate at GATE; and, Sarah Kaplan, Distinguished Professor of Gender & the Economy, and Professor of Strategic Management, and director of GATE.  

The report is online at

The Institute for Gender and the Economy (GATE) at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management promotes an understanding of gender inequalities and how they can be remedied—by people of all genders—in the world of business and, more broadly, in the economy. At GATE, we are changing the conversation on gender equality by: using rigorous research to investigate the hidden mechanisms that propagate gender equality; funding, translating, and disseminating innovative, academic research; and engaging executives, policy makers, and students to create new solutions for achieving equality, advancing careers, and creating economic prosperity. Visit for more information.   

The Rotman School of Management is part of the University of Toronto, a global centre of research and teaching excellence at the heart of Canada’s commercial capital. Rotman is a catalyst for transformative learning, insights and public engagement, bringing together diverse views and initiatives around a defining purpose: to create value for business and society. For more information, visit  


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Ken McGuffin
Manager, Media Relations
Rotman School of Management
University of Toronto